Health and exercise articles

If you have arrived here from a article, scroll to the name or subject of the article and you will find your reference.  The studies below can be found via Medline and are divided by subject area.

Healthy eating

1) Hu FB, Rimm EB, Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men, Harvard School of Public Health; Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Oct;72(4):912-21. Available from

2) Hsin-Chia Hung, Kaumudi J. Joshipura, Rui Jiang, Frank B. Hu, Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Major Chronic Disease, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Nov 3;96(21):1577-84, Available from

3) Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men., Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health; JAMA. 1996 Feb 14;275(6):447-51.Available from:

4) Flight I, Clifton P., Cereal grains and legumes in the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke: a review of the literature., CSIRO Human Nutrition, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia., Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;60(10):1145-59. Epub 2006 May 3. Available from:

5) Mozaffarian D, Kumanyika SK, Lemaitre RN, Cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals., Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, JAMA. 2003 Apr 2;289(13):1659-66. Available from

6) Bazzano LA, Li TY, Joshipura KJ, Hu FB., Intake of fruit, vegetables, and fruit juices and risk of diabetes in women., Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health, Diabetes Care 31:1311–1317, 2008, Available from

7) Brunner EJ, Mosdøl A, Witte DR, Dietary patterns and 15-y risks of major coronary events, diabetes, and mortality, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1414-21; Available from

8) Christine M. Albert, MD; Charles H. Hennekens, MD, et al; Fish Consumption and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death, JAMA. 1998;279:23-28. Available from

9) Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD; Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH, Optimal Diets for Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease, JAMA. 2002;288:2569-2578. Available from

10) Frank B Hu, Eric B Rimm, Meir J Stampfer, Alberto Ascherio, Donna Spiegelman, and Walter C Willett , Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men, Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, and the Channing Laboratory, the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston., Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:912–21. available from

11) Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease. Department of Atherosclerosis Research Children's Hospital Oakland, Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar;91(3):502-9. Available from

12) Lawrence J. Appel, MD, MPH, Editorial: Dietary Patterns and Longevity, Expanding the Blue Zones From the Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, and International Health (Human Nutrition), Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. (Circulation. 2008;118:214-215. Available from

13) Leanne M. Redman, Corby K. Martin, Donald A. Williamson, Effect of Caloric Restriction in Non-Obese Humans on Physiological, Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes, Physiol Behav. 2008 August 6; 94(5): 643–64, Available from

14) Willcox DC, Willcox BJ, Todoriki H, Suzuki M., The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load., Department of Human Welfare, Okinawa International University, J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Aug;28 Suppl:500S-516S. Available from

15) Fontana L. , Calorie restriction and cardiometabolic health. Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Sciences and Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008 Feb;15(1):3-9. Available from

16) Pennington, Jean A. T. , Bowes and Churches Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Copyright 1998.

17) Van Vliet T, Katan MB., Lower ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids in cultured than in wild fish., Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands., Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Jan;51(1):1-2., Available from

18) Weaver KL, Ivester P, The content of favorable and unfavorable polyunsaturated fatty acids found in commonly eaten fish, Wake Forest Center for Botanical Lipids, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jul;108(7):1178-85. Available from

19) Strazzullo P, D'Elia L, Kandala NB, Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies. Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University of Naples Medical School, Naples, Italy; BMJ. 2009 Nov 24;339:b456, Available from

20) Ponte PI, Prates JA, Crespo JP, Restricting the intake of a cereal-based feed in free-range-pastured poultry: effects on performance and meat quality, Poult Sci. 2008 Oct;87(10):2032-42., Available from

21) Micha R, Mozaffarian D., Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a fresh look at the evidence., Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Lipids. 2010 Oct;45(10):893-905, Available from

22) Environmental Working Group’s Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides. Available from

23) Ramirez-Anaya, J, Samaneigo-Sanchez, C et al, Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.; Departamento de Desarrollo Regional, Centro Universitario del Sur, Jalisco, Mexico, Food Chem 2015 Dec 1;188:430-8. Available from

24) Larsson, SC. , Orsini, N.  Red Meat and Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis;  Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;  Am J. Epidemiol.  2014 Feb 1;179(3):282-9.  Epub 2013 Oct 22.  Available from

25) Popkin, BM, D'Anci KE, Rosenberg, IH.  Water, Hydration and Health; Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC;  Nutr Rev. 2010 Aug;68(8):439-58. Available from

26) Fasano A, Sapone A, et al. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity;  Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center and Center for Celiac Research, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Gastroenterology. 2015 May;148(6):1195-204.  Available from

27) Mansueto P, D’Alamo, A, et al. Food allergy in irritable bowel syndrome:  The case of non-celiac wheat sensitivity; Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Specialist, University Hospital of Palermo,  Palermo, Italy; World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Jun 21; 21(23): 7089–7109;  Available from:

28)  Whalen KA, McCullough M, et al.  Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores and Risk of Incident, Sporadic Colorectal Adenomas, Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University,  Atlanta, GA; Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Dec 1; 180(11): 1088–1097.  Available from

29) Rice BH, Quann EE, et al, Crichton GE, Alkerwi A,  Meeting and exceeding dairy recommendations: effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and risk of chronic disease. Dairy Research Institute, Rosemont, Illinois;  Nutr Rev. 2013 Apr;71(4):209-23. Available from

30)  Crichton GE, Alkerwi A,  Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.  Nutritional Physiology Research Centre, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; Nutr Res. 2014 Dec;34(12):1036-44.  Available from

31)  Oyebode O, Gordon-Dseagu V, et al,  Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality: analysis of Health Survey for England data; Health and Social Surveys Research Group, Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, UCL (University College London), London, UK; J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Sep; 68(9): 856–862.;  Available from

32)  Wang X, Ouyang Y, et al  Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.  Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; BMJ. 2014 Jul 29;349:g4490.  Available from

Weight Loss

1) D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Leanne Redman, Leonie K. Heilbronn, Corby K Martin, Eric Ravussin, and The Pennington CALERIE Team; Caloric Restriction with or without Exercise: The Fitness vs. Fatness Debate, Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 January ; 42(1): 152–159. Available from NIH Public Access

2) Jakicic JM, Otto AD., Treatment and prevention of obesity: what is the role of exercise?, Department of Health and Physical Activity, Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, Nutr Rev. 2006 Feb;64(2 Pt 2):S57-61., available from

3) Jakicic JM. , The effect of physical activity on body weight, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Health and Physical Activity, Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center, Pittsburgh, Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Dec;17 Suppl 3:S34-8., Available from

4) Jakicic JM, Marcus BH, Lang W, Janney C. , Effect of exercise on 24-month weight loss maintenance in overweight women, Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jul 28;168(14):1550-9; discussion 1559-60. Available from:

Metabolic Equivalent

1) Compendium of Physical Activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities, International Life Sciences Institute, 2000; Barbara E. Ainsworth, William L. Haskell, Melicia C. Whitt, et al. Available from

Obesity research (including waist-hip ratio and BMI)

1) Expert Panel on the Identification Evaluation and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults; Executive summary of the clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1855-67. Available from:

2) Berrington de Gonzalez A, Hartge P, Cerhan JR, et al, Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD; N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 2;363(23):2211-9; Available from

3) Kenneth F. Adams, Ph.D., Arthur Schatzkin, M.D., et al, Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality in a Large Prospective Cohort of Persons 50 to 71 Years Old, N Engl J Med 2006;355:763-78. Available from

4) T. Pischon, M.D., M.P.H., H. Boeing, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., et al, General and Abdominal Adiposity and Risk of Death in Europe, N Engl J Med 2008;359:2105-20, Available from

5) Zernike, Katie, Sizing Up America, Signs of Expansion, New York Times, 2004.3.; Available from:

6) Anna Peeters, PhD; Jan J. Barendregt, PhD; Frans Willekens, PhD; Johan P. Mackenbach, MD, PhD; Abdullah Al Mamun, BSc(Hons), MSc; and Luc Bonneux, MD, PhD, Obesity in Adulthood and Its Consequences for Life Expectancy: A Life-Table Analysis, NEDCOM, the Netherlands Epidemiology and Demography Compression of Morbidity Research Group, Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:24-32. available from

7) Frank B. Hu, M.D., Walter C. Willett, M.D., Tricia Li, M.D., et al ,Adiposity as Compared with Physical Activityin Predicting Mortality among Women, N Engl J Med 2004;351:2694-703. Available from

8) Gary Whitlock, Sarah Lewington, Paul Sherliker, Robert Clarke, Jonathan Emberson, Jim Halsey, Nawab Qizilbash, Rory Collins, Richard Peto, et al Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900,000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Richard Doll Building, University of Oxford, Oxford Lancet 2009; 373: 1083–969) Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Extreme Obesity Among Adults: United States, Trends 1960–1962 Through 2007–2008by Cynthia L. Ogden, Ph.D., and Margaret D. Carroll, M.S.P.H., Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, june 2010; Available from

10) Hart CL, et al. Diabet Med. 2007 Jan;24(1):73-80 How many cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus are due to being overweight in middle age? Evidence from the Midspan prospective cohort studies using mention of diabetes mellitus on hospital discharge or death records.; Available from

11) Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011, [cited 2008 November 29] Available from

12) Peeters A, et al. Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Jan 7;138(1):24-32. [cited 2008 November 29] Available from

13) Finkelstein, EA, Trogdon, JG, Cohen, JW, and Dietz, W. Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: Payer- and service-specific estimates. Health Affairs 2009; 28(5)

14) Eric A. Finkelstein, Ian C. Fiebelkorn, and Guijing Wan, National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much, and who's paying? Health Aff (Millwood). 2003 Jan-Jun; Available from

15) American Diabetes Association, Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2007: [cited 2008 November 29] Available from

16) New England Journal of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group ,Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin, February 7, 2002, Volume 346:393-403, Available from,

17) Goodpaster BH, Delany JP, Otto AD, Kuller L, Vockley J, South-Paul JE, Thomas SB, Brown J, McTigue K, Hames KC, Lang W, Jakicic JM. , Effects of diet and physical activity interventions on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in severely obese adults: a randomized trial, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh. JAMA. 2010 Oct 27;304(16):1795-802. Epub 2010 Oct 9; available from 

Metabolic Syndrome X

1) R. Bethene Ervin, Ph.D., R.D., Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults 20 Years of Age and Over, by Sex, Age, Rage and Ethniciy, and Body Mass Index: United States, 2003-2006; National Health Statistics Reports, #13, May 5, 2009 Available from

2) Peeters A, et al. Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Jan 7;138(1):24-32. Available from

3) American Heart Association, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics--2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, 2008 [Cited 2008 December 8] Available from

4) Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008; [Cited March 4, 2009]William L. Haskell, PhD, Chair, Miriam E. Nelson, PhD, Vice Chair, Rod K. Dishman, PhD, Edward T. Howley, PhD, et al. Available from

5) Laaksonen, David E., MD, MPH, et al., Low Levels of Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Predict Development of the Metabolic Syndrome; Diabetes Care 25:1612–1618, 2002 Available from

6) Hu, Frank B., MD et al, Television Watching and Other Sedentary Behaviors in Relation to Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women; JAMA 2003;289:1785-1791 Available from

Childhood Obesity

1) Taylor RW, Jones IE, Williams SM, Goulding A., Evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and the conicity index as screening tools for high trunk fat mass, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, in children aged 3-19 y.; Departments of Human Nutrition, Medicine, and Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand., Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2):490-5., Available from 

2) H David McCarthy, Sandra M Ellis, Tim J Cole Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11-16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference; Department of Health and Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London, BMJ. 2003 Mar 22;326(7390):624. Available from Jeong-Hyeon Kwon, Han-Yun Jang, Min-Jin Oh, Jun-Seung Rho, Ju-Hye Jung, Keun-Sang Yum,1and Ji-Whan Han Association of Visceral Fat and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu, Korea. Yonsei Med J. 2011 January 1; 52(1): 39–44., Available from

4)Noël Cameron, Laura L Jones, Paula L Griffiths, Shane A Norris and John M Pettifor, How well do waist circumference and body mass index reflect body composition in pre-pubertal children?Department of Human Sciences, Loughborough University, UK, Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 September ; 63(9): 1065–1070. Department of Paediatrics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Available from

5) Sorof J, Daniels S. Obesity hypertension in children: a problem ofepidemic proportions. Hypertension 2002;40:441; Available from

6) Jennifer L. Baker, Ph.D., Lina W. Olsen, Ph.D., and Thorkild I.A. Sørensen, M.D., Dr.Med.Sci,Childhood Body-Mass Index and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Adulthood, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Center for Health and Society, Copenhagen; N Engl J Med 2007;357:2329-3; Available from

7) Weiss R, Dziura J, Burgert TS, Tamborlane WV, Taksali SE, Yeckel CW, et al. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2362-74.

8) Rita Patel, Richard M. Martin, Michael S. Kramer et al, Familial Associations of Adiposity: Findings from a Cross- Sectional Study of 12,181 Parental-Offspring Trios from Belarus, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom; The National Research and Applied Medicine Mother and Child Centre, Minsk, Belarus, PLoS One. 2011 Jan 27;6(1): Available from

9) Megan A. Moreno, MD, MSEd, MPH, Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity, ARCH PEDIATR ADOLESC MED/ VOL 163 (NO. 4), APR 2009; Available from

Benefits of fitness and exercise

1) Alpa V. Patel, Leslie Bernstein, et al, Leisure Time Spent Sitting in Relation to Total Mortality in a Prospective Cohort of US Adults: Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Am. J. Epidemiol., July 22, 2010

2) Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE., Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women; JAMA 2003;289:1785-1791

3) Hu FB, Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rimm EB. Physical activity and television watching in relation to risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men, Arch Intern Med. 2001 Jun 25;161(12):1542-8.

4) Blair SN, Kampert JB, Kohl HW 3rd, Barlow CE, Macera CA, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Gibbons LW. Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular diseaseand all-cause mortality in men and women; Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research, Dallas, Tex JAMA. 1996 Jul 17;276(3):205-10.

5) William L. Haskell, Ph.D, Miriam E. Nelson, Ph.D., et al , Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee: Prevention Research Center, School of Medicine, Stanford University, John Hancock Center for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University

6) Laurel B. Yates, MD, MPH; Luc Djousse´, MD, MPH, DSc; Tobias Kurth, MD, ScD; Julie E. Buring, ScD; J. Michael Gaziano, MD, MPH Exceptional Longevity in Men: Modifiable Factors Associated With Survival and Function to Age 90 Years. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(3):284-290; Available from

7) Franco OH, de Laet C, Peeters A, Jonker J, Mackenbach J, Nusselder W. ,Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease. Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands., Arch Intern Med. 2005 Nov 14;165(20):2355-60.

8) Jacqueline T. Jonker, MSC, Chris De Laet, PhD, et al Physical activity and life expectancy with and without diabetes: life table analysis of the Framingham Heart Study, Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center,Rotterdam, Netherlands., Diabetes Care. 2006 Jan;29(1):38-43. Available from

9) Luigi Ferrucci, Grant Izmirlian, Suzanne Leveille, Caroline L. Phillips, Maria-Chiara Corti, Dwight B. Brock, and Jack M. Guralnik , Smoking, Physical Activity, and Active Life Expectancy, Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149:645-53. Available from

10) O'Donovan G, Blazevich AJ, Boreham C, Cooper AR, et al, The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: a consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences., School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK. J Sports Sci. 2010 Apr;28(6):573-91. 

11) Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, et al, Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Aug;39(8):1423-34.Available from

12) Matsouka O, Kabitsis C, Harahousou Y, Trigonis I. , Mood alterations following an indoor and outdoor exercise program in healthy elderly women, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece, Percept Mot Skills. 2005 Jun;100(3 Pt 1):707-15. Available from

13)Martinsen EW. , Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of anxiety and depression, Clinic for Mental Health, Aker University Hospital, Oslo, Norway, Nord J Psychiatry. 2008;62 Suppl 47:25-9. Available from

14) Ströhle A. ,Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité - Medical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany, J Neural Transm. 2009 Jun;116(6):777-84. Epub 2008 Aug 23. Available from

15) Fox KR. ,The influence of physical activity on mental well-being. Department of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Bristol, UK, Public Health Nutr. 1999 Sep;2(3A):411-8, Available from

16) De Matos MG, Calmeiro L, Da Fonseca D., Effect of physical activity on anxiety and depression, Faculty of Human Movement, Technical University of Lisbon, and Center of Malaria and Tropical Diseases, 1499 Lisbonne Cedex, Portugal, Presse Med. 2009 May;38(5):734-9. Epub 2009 Jan 9, Available from

17) Xuemei Sui, MD, Steven P. Hooker, PhD, I-Min Lee, MD, ScD, Timothy S. Church, MD, PhD et al, A Prospective Study of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes inWomen, Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, the Prevention Research Center, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; Diabetes Care 31:550–555, 2008; Available from

18) Timothy R. Wessel; Christopher B. Arant; Marian B. Olson; et al., Relationship of Physical Fitness vs Body Mass Index With Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Events in Women, JAMA. 2004;292(10):1179-1187 (doi:10.1001/jama.292.10.1179), Available from

19) Factsheet: The U.S. Media Universe, Nielsen, January 5, 2011, Available from

Benefits of aerobic exercise

1) Brannon, Frances, Foley, Margaret et al.  (1993) Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation:  Basic Theory and Application, 2nd Edition;  Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company

2) Booth, F. W, Roberts, C. K. et al, Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases.  Compr Physiol. 2012 April; 2(2), 1143-1211  Available from

3) Ratey, John, MD (2008) Spark:  The Revolutionary Science of Exercise and the Brain; New York, NY: Little, Brown and Co.

Reasons to exercise

1) American Heart Association, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics--2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, 2008 [Cited 2011 January 8] Available from

2) Anderson, G., Herbert, R., Das, K., Chronic Conditions: Making the Case for Ongoing Care. Chronic Care Chartbook. [Internet]. 2007 November [Cited 2011 January 8]; 1(1), Available from

3) Office of the Actuary, National Health Statistics Group, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, National Health Expenditures, 2006. Available from 

Rockport Walking Test

1) Duck-chul Lee, Enrique G Artero, Xuemei Sui and Steven N Blair, Mortality trends in the general population: the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness, Journal of Psychopharmacology 24(11) Supplement 4. 27–3, Available from

2) Xuemei Sui, MD, Steven P. Hooker, PhD, et al, A Prospective Study of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women, Diabetes Care December 10, 2007, available from

3) Xuemei Sui, Michael J. LaMonte, and Steven N. Blair, Cardiorespiratory Fitness as a Predictor of Nonfatal Cardiovascular Events in Asymptomatic Women and Men; American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 165, No. 12; available from

4) Ming Wei; James B. Kampert; Carolyn E. Barlow; et al., Relationship Between Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Mortality in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Men; JAMA. 1999;282(16):1547-1553; Available from

5) Dolgener FA, Hensley LD, Marsh JJ, Fjelstul JK., Validation of the Rockport Fitness Walking Test in college males and females; Res Q Exerc Sport. 1994 Jun;65(2):152-8., School of Health, Physical Education and Leisure Services, University of Northern Iowa; available from

Physical Fitness Tests

1)Faulkner RA, Sprigings EJ, McQuarrie A, Bell RD., A partial curl-up protocol for adults based on an analysis of two procedures., College of Physical Education, Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon., Can J Sport Sci. 1989 Sep;14(3):135-41.,

Vo2 Max

1) Duck-chul Le, Enrique G Artero, Xuemei Sui and Steven N Blair, Mortality trends in the general population: the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness. Journal of Psychopharmacology 24(11) Supplement 4. 27–3, Available from

2)Timothy S. Church, MD, MPH, PhD; Michael J. LaMonte, PhD; Carolyn E. Barlow, MS; Steven N. Blair, PED, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Mass Index as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Men With Diabetes, The Cooper Institute, Dallas, TX, Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:2114-2120, Available from

Lower back exercise

1) Deyo RA, Mirza SK, Martin BI. Back pain prevalence and visit rates: estimates from U.S. national surveys, 2002. Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Nov 1;31(23):2724-7. available from

2) Deyo RA, Phillips WR, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Low back pain. A primary care challenge. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996 Dec 15;21(24):2826-32. Available from 

3) Malmivaara A, Häkkinen U, Aro T, Heinrichs ML, Koskenniemi L, Kuosma E, Lappi S, Paloheimo R, Servo C, Vaaranen V, et al. The treatment of acute low back pain--bed rest, exercises, or ordinary activity?, Department of Occupational Medicine, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki. N Engl J Med. 1995 Feb 9;332(6):351-5. available from:

4) Waddell G, Feder G, Lewis M., Systematic reviews of bed rest and advice to stay active for acute low back pain., Glasgow Nuffield Hospital. Br J Gen Pract. 1997 Oct;47(423):647-52. available from: 

5) Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, Patronas NJ, Wiesel SW. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990 Mar;72(3):403-8.

6) Boos N, Rieder R, Schade V, Spratt KF, Semmer N, Aebi M. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging, work perception, and psychosocial factors in identifying symptomatic disc herniations., Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inselspital, Switzerland. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1995 Dec 15;20(24):2613-25.

7) Borenstein DG, O'Mara JW Jr, Boden SD, Lauerman WC, Jacobson A, Platenberg C, Schellinger D, Wiesel SW.The Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine to Predict Low-Back Pain in Asymptomatic Subjects Division of Rheumatology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American) 83:1306-1311 (2001) 

8) ALLEN R. LAST, MD, MPH, and KAREN HULBERT, MD, Chronic Low Back Pain: Evaluation and Management , Racine Family Medicine Residency Program, Medical College of Wisconsin, Racine, Wisconsin, Am Fam Physician. 2009 Jun 15;79(12):1067-1074.

9) Rainville J, Hartigan C, Martinez E, Limke J, Jouve C, Finno M. Exercise as a treatment for chronic low back pain, The Spine Center at New England Baptist Hospital, 125 Parker Hill Avenue, Boston, MA 02120, USA. Spine J. 2004 Jan-Feb;4(1):106-15. 

Websites for your reference

1) Harvard School of Public Health

2) Institute for Aerobics Research

3) The US National Institutes of Health

4) The US Department of Health and Human Services: Physical Activity Guidelines 

Return from References to Why I Exercise